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Constructed wetland for treatment of wastewater from a dairy farm: cooperatva Fattoria della Piana Societa` Agricola

: Implemented nature-based solutions (NbS) as green infrastructure through CWs with horizontal subsurface flow (HF) for wastewater treatment (IRIDRA, 2021).
: Italy
: Candinoni (RC)
: 26.9 km²
: 405 (municipality population 2017)
: 2011
: No Data
: Completed
: Yes
: Cooperative Fattoria della Piana Agricultural firm
: 38.5191
: 15.9745
Increased provisioning of ecosystem goods (e.g. Food, water, etc)
Yes, whey waste is converted into energy and the effluent of the CW system is discharged back into the Mammella torrent.
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
The CW may provide a new wildlife habitat and exploit the ecological benefits of the CWs apart from their function as a treatment facility (Knight, 1997; Stefanakis, 2019). The main characteristics of the CW (i.e., presence of water and vegetation) make it suitable for the creation of a new ecological habitat, by attracting wildlife species, especially birds, and establishing a green area (Stefanakis, 2019).
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
Sustainable urbanisation
As natural treatment technology, CWs can be categorised as sustainable systems, fulfilling sustainability criteria such as effective sanitation, contribution to public health and hygiene aspects, environmental protection and safeguarding of natural resources. (Stefanakis, 2015). The number of treated person equivalent is 1500 PE. (IRIDRA, 2021).
Improved aesthetic value
Education, knowledge exchange and learning
Yes, educational activities are also included among the farm's assets.
Low provisioning of ecosystem goods (e.g. Water, food)
Drought and heat risk
Investigations of mutation in the compound occurrence of drought and heat conditions have identified many hotspots of compound drought and extreme heat conditions in Europe. These include, among others, France, Benelux countries, Italy and Balkan Peninsula. Trend detection has shown that these areas were characterized by a rising trend in the compound occurrence of drought and heat extremes. (Bezak, Mikos, 2020).
Low aesthetic value
Food security (SDG2) Zero Hunger
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Clean water and sanitation (SDG6)
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
Yes, the main characteristic of CWs is very low greenhouse gas emission (Stefanakis et al., 2014; Stefanakis, 2015).
Terrestrial biodiversity (SDG15)
: Bezak, N., Mikos, M. (2020). Changes in the Compound Drought and Extreme Heat Occurrence in the 1961–2018 Period at the European Scale. Water 2020, 12, 3543. Retrieved from:

IRIDRA (2021). Nature-based solutions - Sustainable water management. Information obtained: 2021-02-16. Available at:

Stefanakis, A. I., Akratos, C. S., & Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2014). Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands: Eco-engineering Systems for Wastewater and Sludge Treatment (1st ed.). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Publishing. 378 pp. ISBN 978-0-12-404612-2. Retrieved from:

Stefanakis. A. I. (2015). Constructed Wetlands: Description and Benefits of an Eco-Tech Water Treatment System (Chapter 12). In Impact of Water Pollution on Human Health and Environmental Sustainability (Eds: E. McKeown, G. Bugyi ). 1st Edition. Publisher: IGI Global. Retrieved from:

Stefanakis. A. I. (2019). The Role of Constructed Wetlands as Green Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Water Management. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6981. Tsihrintzis, V.A.; Hamid, R. (1997). Modelling and management of urban stormwater runoff quality: A review. Water Resour. Manag. 1997, 11, 137–164.