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Inwadar Park - Habitat restoration of site at Golf il-Kbir

: Habitat restoration, removal of litter, removal of invasive alien species and planting of indigenous riparian trees and shrubs.
: Malta
: Hal Qormi
: 505 ha
: 16500
: 2020
: Planting took place during quarter 1 of 2020
: Complete
: No
: Ambjent Malta
: 35.8762
: 14.5663
Improved air quality
Yes, tree and woodland cover was associated with air quality improvement ecosystem services (Balzan et al., 2018).
Biodiversity conservation or increased biodiversity
Yes, increasing green areas, enhance the potential for biodiversity and ecosystem service provisioning (Threlfall et al; 2017).
Ecosystem restoration and/or improved ecological connectivity
Yes, one of the aims of this restoration programme is to increase the vegetation cover by planting Mediterranean trees.
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
Yes, green infrastructure, by increasing green areas through implementation of Mediterranean native species.
Drought and heat risk
Yes, the Mediterranean Basin is undergoing a warming trend with longer and warmer summers, an increase in the frequency and the severity of heat waves, changes in precipitation patterns and a reduction in rainfall amounts (Linares et al; 2020).
Loss of biodiversity
Ecosystem degradation
Yes, data from The Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (BES) index (2020) indicates that Malta is one of the highest in the world for the fragility of its biodiversity and ecosystems.
Low aesthetic value
Terrestrial biodiversity (SDG15)
: Balzan, M. V., Caruana, J., Zammit, A. 2018. Assessing the capacity and flow of ecosystem services in multifunctional landscapes : Evidence of a rural-urban gradient in a Mediterranean small island state. Land Use Policy, 75, 711–725. Available at:

Cramer, W., Guiot, J., Fader, M., Garrabou, J., Gattuso, J.-P., Iglesias, A., Lange, M.A., Lionello , P., Llasat , M.C., Paz, S., Peñuelas, J., Snoussi, M., Toreti , A., Tsimplis, M.N., Xoplaki, E. 2018. Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean. Nature Climate Change. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0299-2.

Linares, C., Díaz, J., Negev, M., Martínez, G.S., Debono, R. and Paz, S. 2020. Impacts of climate change on the public health of the Mediterranean Basin population - current situation, projections, preparedness and adaptation. Environmental Research, 182:109107 Available at:

Swiss Re institute (2020) Available at: