Increased infiltration, water retention and flood protection
Yes, natural regulation of possible local floods and storms via the natural retention and absorption capabilities of the living wall.
Improved air quality
Yes, one of the project's key challenges is to amelorate environmental quality, including air quality (Naturvation project, 2020)
Reduced drought risk, cooling effect, urban heat island mitigation
Yes, the use of the vegetal element as an integrated lattice with an irrigation system of low consumption transforms the enclosure into a skin capable of compensating for differences in temperature and humidity (climate regulation) (Naturvation project, 2020)
Increased quality and quantity of green and blue infrastructures
Yes, the vegetal facade inceased quantity of green spaces in the build environment.
Yes, enhancing sustainable urbanisation through re-naturing the monument/protected building (the current headquarters of the Official College of Architects of Córdoba) can improve the quality of environment (Cuac Arquitectura, 2020), increase indoor comfort, and lower the incidence of heat stress associated with heat waves (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2019), and also increase human well-being (European Union, 2015). Areas with more greenery suffer less from aggression, violence and vandalism. (Sempergreen, 2019).
Improved aesthetic value
Yes, the created living wall brought about an improvement in the aesthetic value in the area.
Increased access to green infrastructure
Drought and heat risk
Yes, a heatwavethat hit Spain in 2015 triggered alerts across the region, with temperatures soaring above 40°C and warnings of a high risk to residents' health. Warnings were issued in over 40 provinces in Spain, with a red alert for the southern city of Cordoba. The Spanish cities of Cordoba, Seville and Toledo were some of the worst affected on 29 June 2015, when temperatures reached up to 44°C in some areas (BBC, 2015). Spanish national weather agency (AEMET) placed the Andalusian provinces of Córdoba, Granada and Jaén on red alert (high risk), with temperatures going up to 42°C on 27 July 2020 (Local News, 2020). The Mediterranean Region is considered as a "hot-spot" of climate change, having been identified in global climate scenarios as one of the most responsive regions to climate change (Lionello and Scarascia, 2018). Observed annual mean temperatures in the Mediterranean Region are now 1.4 °C higher than the average late-nineteenth-century levels, particularly during the summer months (Cramer et al., 2018).
Low aesthetic value
Yes, the Art Natura project has incorporated nature in the urban environment (Naturvation project, 2020).
Good health and well-being (SDG3)
Yes, urban greenery contributes significantly to human well-being.
Sustainable cities and communities (SDG11)
Yes, living walls contribute to a more sustainable way of life in cities through better management of issues such as stormwater, pollution and rising temperatures.
Climate action, resilience, mitigation and adaptation (SDG13)
Yes, the reintroduction of vegetation into urban environments promotes the occurrence of natural cooling processes, such as photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (Green roofs for healthy cities, s.a.).
Cramer, W., Guiot, J., Fader, M., Garrabou, J., Gattuso, J.-P., Iglesias, A., Lange, M.A., Lionello , P., Llasat , M.C., Paz, S., Peñuelas, J., Snoussi, M., Toreti , A., Tsimplis, M.N., Xoplaki, E. 2018. Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean. Nature Climate Change. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0299-2.
European Union. 2015. Towards an EU Research and Innovation policy agenda for Nature-Based Solutions and Re-Naturing Cities: Final Report of the Horizon 2020 Expert Group on 'Nature-Based Solutions and Re-Naturing Cities'. (full version). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 74 pp. https://doi.org/10.2777/765301.